Conservation at Karingani is based on the principle that we can only preserve what we understand, and so considerable effort has been put into quantifying and analysing the current and projected status of Karingani, particularly in terms of the population density of large mammal species. These species are particularly important, as it is the charismatic megafauna and predators that largely drive ecotourism demand. Their presence is also indicative of the health of the ecosystem, and the extent to which human activities (specifically poaching) are impacting on it. Offering a diverse, multi-faceted wilderness experience is one of the three pillars on which conservation management decisions will be based. The first is – of course – environmental factors in terms of soil types, vegetation, climate and the availability of water, all of which combine to determine the carrying capacity of Karingani (that is, the number and mix of animals of different species that can be supported). A third factor to be considered is ensuring that conservation efforts within Karingani are cost-effective. Wildlife populations with Karingani have been assessed (by means of aerial surveys) as being below carrying capacity. Growth can be achieved organically as species reproduce naturally, and return to Karingani from other areas of their own accord. More rapid growth can be achieved – at a cost – through translocations of purchased game. Population growth of key herbivorous species (elephant, kudu, nyala, black rhino, impala, sable and wildebeest) are projected to only reach the lower estimated carrying capacity in the mid-2020s. Rates of population growth may be affected by factors outside Karingani’s control, such as the continuation of drought conditions. The reduction in poaching – through the creation of viable economic alternatives for local community members – has also contributed to an increase in animal numbers. There have been confirmed sightings of rare species such as black rhino and suni antelope, along with all the major predator species. Environmental considerations are also apparent in the sympathetic way that Karingani’s buildings and infrastructure have been planned and constructed – that is, we are building with the natural environment rather than against it.